The second generation is a solid-state sensor developed in the 1970s. This sensor is composed of solid components such as semiconductors, dielectrics, and magnetic materials, and is made using certain characteristics of materials.
Smart Sensor is a new type of sensor with automatic status sensing, information analysis and processing, and real-time communication and exchange. It is the basis for intelligent manufacturing and the Internet of Things. Throughout the development history of sensors, smart sensors are emerging sensors that were developed in modern times and will continue to affect our lives in the future.
The development process of sensors can be roughly divided into three generations:
The first generation is a structural sensor, which uses structural parameter changes to sense and transform signals.
The second generation is a solid-state sensor developed in the 1970s. This sensor is composed of solid elements such as semiconductors, dielectrics, and magnetic materials, and is made of certain characteristics of materials.
The third-generation sensor is an intelligent sensor that has been gradually developed since 2000.
Origin: Born for spacecraft
But in fact, the concept of smart sensors was first proposed and formed by NASA in the process of developing spacecraft in the 1970s.
In 1978, NASA first proposed the concept of Smart Sensor. A large number of sensors on the spacecraft continuously send data such as temperature, position, speed and attitude to the ground, which is difficult to process simultaneously with a large computer. Such complex data, or data loss and cost reduction, there must be smart sensors that can realize the integration of sensors and computers.
In the same period, a spacecraft using intelligent sensors was developed. The spacecraft uses a large number of sensors to continuously send data information such as temperature, position, and speed to the ground, and then uses the CPU to calculate the processing unit decentralized technology, and process these huge data at the same time to achieve self-calibration, self-compensation, and remote communication. Features. This is the earliest intelligent sensor. It processes and transforms the output signal of the sensor, and then sends it to the microprocessor for arithmetic processing through the interface.
Until the 1980s, sensors and microprocessors began to combine. At that time, the microprocessor was the core, and the sensor signal conditioning circuit, microcomputer memory and interface circuit were integrated on a chip, so that the sensor had a certain degree of artificial intelligence.
In 1983, the US Honeywell (Honeywell) company developed the world's first smart sensor, ST3000 series smart pressure sensor.
In the 1990s, with the further improvement of intelligent measurement technology, the sensor realized miniaturization, structural integration, array type and digital type, with multiple functions such as self-diagnosis, memory and information processing, and the operation became simpler , It is more convenient to use.
In 1993, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) and NIST (National Institute of Technology and Standards) put forward the "Smart Sensor Interface Standard".
Beginning in 2000, with the large-scale use of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System,) technology, the sensor has further promoted the development of intelligence, miniaturization, and integration.
After 2010, with the rise of the Internet of Things and smart manufacturing, smart sensors have received extensive attention and rapid development.
Development: Landing the Internet of Things and upgrading smart manufacturing
For the Internet of Things, the smart sensor itself is a typical IoT smart terminal, or the current typical IoT smart terminal is also a smart sensor.
Compared with the perception of ordinary sensors-the single function of output, and the inability to determine in time after failure, the smart sensor itself has the functions of data collection, data processing, data upload, command execution, self-calibration and automatic compensation, and at the same time through the battery And solar energy and other auxiliary power supply methods can truly achieve unattended applications and complete the assigned monitoring missions around the clock.
Therefore, the intelligentization of sensors is an inevitable trend under the concept of the Internet of Things. At the same time, the deduction of the Internet of Things technology will derive more mature smart sensors. Today, smart sensors have been applied in a variety of IoT scenarios, including robots, VR/AR (virtual reality/augmented reality), drones, smart cities, smart homes, smart transportation, smart medical, etc.
In the industrial production process, various sensors are also needed to monitor and control various parameters in the production process to make the equipment work in a normal state. It can be said that smart sensors are the core equipment to realize smart manufacturing, and it directly affects the development process of smart manufacturing.
An essential element of intelligent manufacturing is the automatic flow of data, and on-site data acquisition is the first place to start the flow. Whether it is data collection, storage, display, monitoring or other information integration, in the field of front-end perception, smart sensors are the key to achieving intelligence. Without it, intelligent manufacturing will be impossible to talk about.
In the development process of smart manufacturing, smart sensors, as autonomous input devices for smart equipment to perceive external environmental information, must take into account a series of tasks such as monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation, and play a role in technology traction and scene upgrades for the application of smart equipment. .
Intelligent sensing technology is the advanced technology of intelligent manufacturing and the Internet of Things. As a front-end perception tool, it is of great significance.
Future: Smart sensors become the key areas of the company's future layout
According to relevant data, the global sensor market in 2015 was 99.5 billion yuan, of which smart sensors reached about 69.8 billion yuan, accounting for more than 70% of the market. In 2016, the global smart sensor market expanded to about 170 billion yuan again, with an average annual compound growth rate. The rate reaches more than double digits, and the market size is expected to exceed 300 billion yuan in 2019.
At the same time in my country, the output value of domestic smart sensor companies in 2015 was approximately US$1.4 billion, and it is expected that the country will reach US$3.7 billion in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate of more than 30%. In 2019, the scale of my country's smart sensor market is expected to expand to US$13.7 billion, and the localization rate will increase from 13% in 2015 to 27%.
Therefore, regardless of whether it is from the international or domestic market, the current development of smart sensors is a fast-rising trend, and will be the mainstream of market development for some time to come.
According to the statistics of the products of listed companies, there are 12 companies engaged in smart sensors among the 25 listed sensor companies in China, and nearly half of the companies are engaged in smart sensor research, which shows that the market prospects are broad.
As the basis of information and data technology, smart sensors have now been integrated into our production and life, whether it is from robots to unmanned driving, smart phones to smart homes, or smart cities under construction, you can see it Silhouette. In the future, with the penetration of intelligent concepts in all walks of life, smart sensors will surely occupy "half of the country" in the overall market.
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